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Butterfly swimming developed from breaststroke. An American named Brydenthal showed this technique in a competition in 1935. He was not faster than the best breast swimmers, but this style expanded very fast and after three years the breaststroke world record was already held by a smashing swimmer. After the 2nd World War the butterfly swimmers (dolphin arms with breaststroke) dominated the breast swimmers, so that the breast swimming threatened to sink. In 1953 the FINA separated these two types of swimming.
The most fundamental change in butterfly swimming was the footwork. Already at the 1956 Olympic Games in Melbourne, an American “dolphin swimmer” won by a large margin. He swam with snake-like closed legs. The technique has remained the same until today except for relatively small changes.
A few years ago the competition rules were changed from dolphin swimmers to butterfly swimmers, so that the breaststroke, which was forbidden in the meantime, was allowed again. However, this butterfly technique did not prevail any more. Since the 1956 Olympic Games in Melbourne, the 200 m course has been swum as an Olympic discipline. The 100 m course was only added in 1963 in Mexico City.
In the 19th century backstroke was called a variation of breaststroke, namely backstroke. Due to a very strong hollow back the body lay very high on the water, the head was taken back so far that only the mouth and the nose looked out and the footwork was the same as with breaststroke. The arms were pulled from the starting position (hands on the thighs) over the head at shoulder height, dipped into the water and completely stretched back into the starting position. The leg was partly struck simultaneously or one after the other. It was not until the 1912 Olympic Games in Stockholm that the first American swam a change train with a leg strike that resembled the leg strike in crawling kick technique. After he won the gold medal, the conventional technique disappeared very quickly, the new technique was improved and is now about as fast as the butterfly technique.
The 200 m back discipline was for the first time in 1900 in Paris in the Olympic program, then however only again since 1964 (Tokyo). The 100m discipline has been held since 1908 (London).
Breaststroke is the most natural type of swimming in terms of movement. End of the l8. At the end of the 18th century, the claim was made that the human body was specifically lighter than water, you only had to keep your head up. From this core idea the breaststroke technique developed, whereby at the beginning the arms were not bent and the knees were pulled as far as possible to the body. Already at the beginning of the 20th century different breaststroke techniques were taught in the textbook “Ladebecks Schwimmschule”. Among other things, attempts were made here to cover as long a distance as possible with as few moves as possible, while maintaining very long gliding phases. In the course of the development of this century, the swing grab, a shorter arm pull, the late breathing etc. was slowly developed from the push grab. Just like the technique, the rules were often changed. In the beginning, the practice of the technique was evaluated in addition to the swimming time. Here, the rules were so strict that protests were constantly raised. The chin could not be moved and all movements carried out in pairs had to be carried out exactly symmetrically.
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Only the Americans managed it by their negative attitude that these rules were changed in the sixties. The first crossing of the English Channel was carried out in 1875 using the breaststroke technique. In 1908, breaststroke was included in the programme for the first time as an Olympic discipline over 200 m in London. In 1912 the 400 m distance was added in Stockholm, but this was only swum once again in Antwerp in 1920. Since 1963, the 100 m distance has also been an Olympic discipline (Mexico City).
Crawl swimming is the fastest type of swimming and it is therefore not surprising that already in ancient times a crawl-like technique was used, namely the alternating stroke technique and the creep stroke technique. However, there are several reasons for the development of crawling technology. The side swim technique, a chest swim technique in lateral position, should serve as a basis. In the middle of the 19th century this style was further developed by pushing an arm over water. The first long-distance championships were held with this then fastest style (e.g. over 1 English mile = 1,609 m). At the end of the 19th century, the hand overhand style was developed from this, whereby here both